Mohenjo-daro, additionally spelled Mohenjodaro or Moenjodaro, cluster of mounds and ruins on the proper bank of the Indus River, northern Sindh province, southern Pakistan. It lies on the flat sediment plain of the Indus, regarding 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Sukkur. the site contains the remnants of one of two main centres of the traditional Indus civilization (c. 2500–1700 BCE), the other one being Harappa, some 400 miles (640 km) to the northwest in Pakistan’s punjab province.
The name Mohenjo-daro is reputed to indicate “the mound of the dead.” The archeological importance of the site was 1st recognized in 1922, one year after the invention of Harappa. subsequent excavations discovered that the mounds contain the remains of what was once the biggest city of the Indus civilization. due to the city’s size—about 3 miles (5 km) in circuit—and the comparative richness of its monuments and their contents, it's been usually considered a capital of an intensive state. Its relationship with Harappa, however, is uncertain—i.e., if the 2 cities were contemporaneous centres or if one city succeeded the other. Mohenjo-daro was designated a unesco World Heritage site in 1980.
The city of Mohenjo-daro, currently 2 miles (3 km) from the Indus, from which it looks to have been protected, in antiquity as nowadays, by artificial barriers, was arranged out with remarkable regularity into something like a dozen blocks, or “islands,” every regarding 1,260 feet (384 metres) from north to south and 750 feet (228 metres) from east to west, divided by straight or doglegged lanes. The central block on the western aspect was built up artificially to a dominating height of 20 to 40 feet (6 to 12 metres) with mud and mud brick and was fortified to an unascertained extent by square towers of baked brick. Buildings on the high summit enclosed an elaborate bath or tank enclosed by a verandah, an outsized residential structure, a huge depot, and a minimum of 2 aisled halls of assembly. it's clear that the fastness (for such it apparently was) carried the religious and ceremonial headquarters of the location. within the lower town were substantial courtyard homes indicating a substantial middle class. Most homes had little bathrooms and, just like the streets, were well-provided with drains and sanitation. Brick stairs indicate a minimum of an higher story or a flat, habitable roof. The walls were originally plastered with mud, no doubt to cut back the harmful impact of the salts that are contained by the bricks and react destructively to varied heat and humidity.
There is no surviving proof of architectural elaboration, although that may well have been confined to timberwork that has disintegrated. Stone sculpture, too, is scarce; some fragments, however, include the competent head and shoulders of a bearded man with an occasional forehead, narrowed and somewhat supercilious eyes, a fillet round the brow, and across the left shoulder a cloak carved in relief with trefoils at one time filled with red paste. aesthetically the most notable work of figurative art from the town is a known bronze of a young dancing girl, naked save for a large number of armlets. Among innumerable terra-cottas the foremost expressive are tiny however vigorous representations of bulls and buffalo. female figurines might wear elaborate headdresses, and occasional figurines of small, fat grotesques, male or female, betray what maybe was a crude sense of humour.
The evidence suggests that Mohenjo-daro suffered more than once from devastating floods of abnormal depth and duration, owing not just to the encroaching Indus however possibly also to a ponding back of the Indus drainage by tectonic uplifts between Mohenjo-daro and also the ocean. That evidence has led to speculation that Harappa might have succeeded—or a minimum of outlasted—Mohenjo-daro.